There are basically three types of early applications.
Early Decision - Applicants apply early and if accepted, they are contractually obligated to attend the school.
Early Restrictive Action - Applicants apply early and, if accepted, they have an earlier deadline to make a decision on whether or not to attend.
Early Action - Applicants apply early and, if accepted, they can still consider other options.
The Wordle shows the schools that the students applied to (the larger the name, the more applications)